"Doctors warn over homeopathic 'vaccines. "Dynamics of hydrogen bonds: how to probe their role in the unusual properties of liquid water". "Chiari malformation Fact Sheet: National Institute of neurological Disorders and Stroke (ninds. "Endoscopic coverage of fetal myelomeningocele in utero". "Boiron oscillococcinum class action lawsuit". "Bone histology of the ichthyosaurs: comparative data and functional interpretation". "Chapter 9: The Wrist and Hand Complex". "Attention and executive functions in adolescents with spina bifida".
"Correction of hindbrain herniation and anatomy of the vermis after in utero repair of myelomeningocele in sheep". "Clinical significance of congenital lumbosacral malformations in young male workout population with prolonged low back pain". "Chapter 87: gout and Hyperuricemia". "Efficacy of homeopathic therapy in cancer treatment". "Does potentized HgCl2 (mercurius corrosivus) affect the activity of diastase and amylase?". "Chest pain and costochondritis associated with vitamin d deficiency: a report of two nurofen cases". "Een ieder is bezig aardappelen en groenten in te slaan mitsgaders brandhout. "Dokter, ik zal toch nog wakker worden?" is een vraag die patiënten vaak stellen aan de anesthesist. "Evil humors take their Toll as innate immunity makes gouty joints trem-ble". "Center for Spina bifida: Specialists and Services".
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"Background of Management of myelomeningocele Study (moms. "Beta blockers in the treatment of hyperthyroidism". "Bristol Homeopathic rugschool Hospital to cease Offering Homeopathic Treatments". "Does taking vitamins at the time of conception prevent neural tube defects?". "Evaluating the macroscopic yield behaviour of trabecular bone using a nonlinear homogenisation approach". "Everything you smell in that signature aroma piercing is medicine." How do you take this fragrant elixir? "European Medicine: a résumé of Medical Progress During the eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". "Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2". "Executive processes for children with spina bifida".
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The theory of miasms has been criticized as an explanation developed by hahnemann to preserve the system of homeopathy in the face of treatment failures, and for being inadequate to cover the many hundreds of sorts of diseases, as well as for failing to explain. 57 :1489 19th century: rise to popularity and early criticism Homeopathy achieved its greatest popularity in the 19th century. It was introduced to the United States in 1825 by hans Birch Gram, a student of Hahnemann. 58 The first homeopathic school in the us opened in 1835, and in 1844, the first us national medical association, the American Institute of Homeopathy, was established. Throughout the 19th century, dozens of homeopathic institutions appeared in Europe and the United States, there were 22 homeopathic colleges and 15,000 practitioners in the United States. Because medical practice of the time relied on ineffective and often dangerous treatments, patients of homeopaths often had better outcomes than those of the doctors of the time. 61 Homeopathic preparations, even if ineffective, would almost surely cause no harm, making the users of homeopathic preparations less likely to be killed by the treatment that was supposed to be helping them. 47 The relative success of homeopathy in the 19th century may have led to the abandonment of the ineffective and harmful treatments of bloodletting and purging and to have begun the move towards more effective, science-based medicine. 35 One reason for the growing popularity of homeopathy was its apparent success in treating people suffering from infectious disease epidemics.
In the Organon, hahnemann introduced the concept of "miasms" as "infectious principles" underlying chronic disease. 48 Hahnemann associated each miasm with specific diseases, and thought that initial exposure to shoulder miasms causes local symptoms, such as skin or venereal diseases. If, however, these symptoms were suppressed by medication, the cause went deeper and began to manifest itself as diseases of the internal organs. 49 Homeopathy maintains that treating diseases by directly alleviating their symptoms, as is sometimes done in conventional medicine, is ineffective because all "disease can generally be traced to some latent, deep-seated, underlying chronic, or inherited tendency". 50 The underlying imputed miasm still remains, and deep-seated ailments can be corrected only by removing the deeper disturbance of the vital force. 51 Hahnemann's hypotheses for the direct or remote cause of all chronic diseases (miasms) originally presented only three, psora (the itch syphilis (venereal disease) or sycosis (fig-wart disease).
52 Of these three the most important was psora (Greek for "itch described as being related to any itching diseases of the skin, supposed to be derived from suppressed scabies, and claimed to be the foundation of many further disease conditions. Hahnemann believed psora to be the cause of such diseases as epilepsy, cancer, jaundice, deafness, and cataracts. 53 Since hahnemann's time, other miasms have been proposed, some replacing one or more of psora's proposed functions, including tuberculosis and cancer miasms. 49 The law of susceptibility implies that a negative state of mind can attract hypothetical disease entities called "miasms" to invade the body and produce symptoms of diseases. 54 Hahnemann rejected the notion of a disease as a separate thing or invading entity, and insisted it was always part of the "living whole". 55 Hahnemann coined the expression " allopathic medicine which was used to pejoratively refer to traditional Western medicine. 56 Hahnemann's miasm theory remains disputed and controversial within homeopathy even in modern times.
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From this, hahnemann came to believe that all effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the diseases that they treat, in accord with the "law of similars" that had been proposed by ancient physicians. 40 An account of the effects of eating cinchona bark noted by Oliver Wendell Holmes, and published in 1861, failed to reproduce the symptoms Hahnemann reported. 41 :128 Hahnemann's law of similars is a postulate rather than a scientific law. 42 This led to the name "homeopathy", which comes from the Greek : μοιος hómoios, "-like" and πάθος páthos, "suffering". Subsequent scientific work showed that cinchona cures malaria because it contains quinine, which kills the Plasmodium falciparum parasite that causes the disease; the mechanism of action is unrelated to hahnemann's ideas. 43 "Provings" Hahnemann began to test what effects substances produced in humans, a procedure that would later become known as "homeopathic proving".
These tests required subjects to test the effects of ingesting substances by clearly recording all of their symptoms as well as the ancillary conditions under which they appeared. 44 he published a collection of provings in 1805, and a second collection of 65 preparations appeared in his book, materia medica pura, in 1810. 45 Because hahnemann believed that large doses of drugs that caused similar symptoms would only aggravate illness, he advocated extreme dilutions of the substances; he devised a technique for making dilutions that he believed would preserve a substance's therapeutic properties while removing its harmful effects. 10 Hahnemann believed that this process aroused and enhanced "the spirit-like medicinal powers of the crude substances". 46 he gathered and published a complete overview of his new medical system in his 1810 book, the Organon of the healing Art, whose 6th edition, published in 1921, is still used by homeopaths today. 47 miasms and disease a homeopathic preparation made from marsh tea : the "15C" dilution shown here means the original solution was diluted to 1/1030 of its original strength. Given that there are many orders of magnitude fewer than 1030 molecules in the small sample, the likelihood that it contains even one molecule of the original herb is extremely low.
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31 32 In the late 18th and 19th centuries, mainstream medicine used methods like bloodletting and purging, and administered complex mixtures, such as Venice treacle, which was made from 64 substances including opium, myrrh, and viper's flesh. 33 These treatments often worsened symptoms and sometimes proved fatal. 34 35 Hahnemann rejected these practices which had been extolled for centuries 36 mpfl as irrational and inadvisable; 37 instead, he advocated the use of single drugs at lower doses and promoted an immaterial, vitalistic view of how living organisms function, believing that diseases spier have spiritual. 38 Hahnemann's concept see also: Samuel Hahnemann The term "homeopathy" was coined by hahnemann and first appeared in print in 1807. 39 Hahnemann conceived of homeopathy while translating a medical treatise by the Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen into german. Being sceptical of Cullen's theory concerning cinchona 's use for curing malaria, hahnemann ingested some bark specifically to investigate what would happen. He experienced fever, shivering and joint pain : symptoms similar to those of malaria itself.
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Although some clinical trials produce positive results, 18 19 multiple systematic reviews have indicated that this is because of chance, flawed research methods, and reporting bias. Homeopathic practice has been criticized as unethical because it discourages the use of effective treatments, 20 with the world health Organization warning against using homeopathy to try to treat severe diseases such as hiv and malaria. 21 The continued practice of homeopathy, despite a lack of evidence of efficacy, 6 7 22 has led to it being characterized within the scientific and medical communities as nonsense, 23 quackery, 4 24 and a sham. 25 There have been four large scale assessments of homeopathy by national or international bodies: the australian National health and Medical Research council ; the United Kingdom's house of Commons Science and Technology committee; the european Academies' Science Advisory council; and the Swiss Federal health. Each concluded that homeopathy is ineffective, and recommended against the practice receiving any further funding. The national health Service in England has announced bonusan a policy of not funding homeopathic medicine because it is "a misuse of resources". 29 They have called on the uk department of health to add homeopathic remedies to the blacklist of forbidden prescription items. 30 Contents History historical context The concept of "like cures like" may have been suggested by hippocrates around 400 bc, when he prescribed a small dose of mandrake root to treat mania, knowing it produces mania in much larger doses. 31 Similarly, in the 16th century, paracelsus wrote " similia similibus curantur " (similar to the subjunctive form later used by hahnemann often translated as "what makes a man ill also cures him".
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by, samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like ( similia similibus curentur a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar. 1, homeopathy is a pseudoscience a belief that is incorrectly presented as scientific. Homeopathic preparations are not effective for treating any condition; 2 3 4 5 large-scale studies have found homeopathy to be no pain more effective than a placebo, indicating that any positive effects that follow treatment are only due to the placebo effect, normal recovery from illness. 6 7 8, hahnemann believed the underlying causes of disease were phenomena that he termed miasms, and that homeopathic preparations addressed these. The preparations are manufactured using a process of homeopathic dilution, in which a chosen substance is repeatedly diluted in alcohol or distilled water, each time with the containing vessel being bashed against an elastic material, commonly a leather-bound book. Dilution typically continues well past the point where no molecules of the original substance remain. 10, homeopaths select homeopathics 11 by consulting reference books known as repertories, and by considering the totality of the patient's symptoms, personal traits, physical and psychological state, and life history. 12, homeopathy is not a plausible system of treatment, as its dogmas about how drugs, illness, the human body, liquids and solutions operate are contradicted by a wide range of discoveries across biology, psychology, physics and chemistry made in the two centuries since its invention.
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